A microprocessor and a microcontroller are two words that have a lot in common, but they are not the same thing. They provide a variety of functions that are all critical to a device’s operation. So, what’s the main difference? Let’s take a closer look at each of them.
The CPU (Central Processing Unit), often known as the brain and heart of the computer, is a well-known term without which the computer would simply not operate. Well, a CPU is a microprocessor that executes the computer’s ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) and data processing tasks. A microprocessor is a multi-transistor integrated circuit constructed on a tiny chip with the ability to communicate with other devices linked to it. This is the best answer to What Is Microprocessor?
A microcontroller is a low-cost computer built on a single MOS integrated circuit (IC) chip that is specially designed for use in embedded systems. A CPU/processor, memory, and I/O (Input-Output) devices are all included in a microcontroller. Embedded systems are devices that require a lot of computer operations to function, such as digital clocks, traffic lights, washing machines, and much more equipment that we use on a daily basis. This response to various scenarios.
The CPU (Central Processing Unit), often known as the brain and heart of the computer, is a well-known term without which the computer would simply not operate. Well, a CPU is a microprocessor that executes the computer’s ALU (Arithmetic and Logic Unit) and data processing tasks. A microprocessor is a multi-transistor integrated circuit constructed on a tiny chip with the ability to communicate with other devices linking to it. This is the best answer to What Is Microcontroller?
Refer to this video below for the difference between the microprocessor and microcontroller.
In contrast, a microcontroller is built to do all of the operations required to complete a certain task. Whereas, external computer ports must be connected to the microprocessor for it to connect with sensors and other hardware during programming.
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Types of Microprocessors and Microcontrollers
- Microprocessors are classified into three types: CISC, RISC, and EPIC.
CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer)
The instructions in CISC are in a complex format. This means that a single instruction can contain a number of low-level instructions. Their examples are intel 486, Pentium, Pentium Pro, etc.
RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer)
There are a number of simple instructions, each of which has a fixed length, so only one instruction is executed per cycle. Their examples include RISC-V, SPARC, power-PC, etc.
EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing)
They’re aimed squarely at the server and embedded systems sectors. refers to architectures that have capabilities that allow compilers to improve instruction-level parallelism (ILP) in all programs while maintaining hardware complexity low. Their examples are Intel architecture 64.
- Microcontrollers divide themselves into three groups based on bit size: 8 bit, 16 bit, and 32 bit.
8 Bit Microcontroller
Because your CPU is 8 bits big, it can use an 8-bit data bus or pipe to enter similar-dimension data with a single machine instruction. Intel 8031/8051 are examples of 8-bit microcontrollers.
16 Bit Microcontroller
The microcontroller performs arithmetic and logical operations with more accuracy. The Intel 8096, for example, is a 16-bit microcontroller.
32 Bit Microcontroller
32-bit microcontrollers (MCUs) offer the performance and functionality needed for a wide range of applications, from general-purpose embedded control to secure Internet of Things (IoT) solutions and beyond. The NXP LPC1700 series has four 32-bit timers.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Microprocessor and Microcontroller
Advantages of a Microprocessor
- Data transferring between data blocks instantaneously is a major advantage of microprocessors.
- A microprocessor has a frequency of 3 GHz, so it can accomplish 3 billion activities per second.
- The microprocessor can perform complicated mathematical computations.
Disadvantages of a Microprocessor
- Overheating of the microprocessor limits the amount of data stored.
- There are no internal ports such as ROM, RAM, or other I/O units on the microprocessor.
- The majority of microprocessors do not support Floating-point operations.
Advantages of a Microcontroller
- Microcontrollers can function as microcomputers without the use of any digital components.
- The operation takes a short amount of time to complete.
- Microprocessors require extremely little heat and power.
Disadvantages of a Microcontroller
- The design of this complicates itself a lot.
- High-power devices interfacing with the microcontroller.
- There is no reprogramming of the microcontroller.
A microprocessor is essentially the CPU of a computer that lacks internal memory and I/O devices. whereas, the microcontroller is a minicomputer that has memory, processes, I/O devices, and other ports.
A microprocessor is used in computers, and microcontrollers being a computer themselves are used in embedded devices like washing machines, traffic lights, etc.
Intel 8085, intel 8086, and intel core i7 are some examples of microprocessors. There are 3 main categories of microcontrollers depending on the bit size, 8-bit, 16-bit, and 32-bit.